Although it is, of course, the members who make the choices which shape and alter their society, everyone does not have an equal voice.  "Who decides" depends on the kind of decision involved and the nature of the power structure involved (1991, p. 58).

This raises the question of whether or not a society's culture and social organization can be considered truly adaptive.  While much of it is adaptive for the society as a whole (i.e., it helps satisfy the basic needs of the system or its members), many of the elements have been selected by and for the benefit of special segments of the society and are "adaptive" only for them.  This the process of selection may result in the retention of elements that are nonadaptive or even maladaptive for the society as a whole (1991, p. 58).