A third integral element of the description of the problematical
item preparatory to the actual functional analysis--a further requirement
for preparing the specimen for analysis, so to speak--is to include the
"meanings" (or cognitive and affective significance) of the activity or
pattern for members of the group. In fact, as will become evident,
a fully circumstantial account of the meanings attached to the item goes
far toward suggesting appropriate lines of functional analysis (1968, pp.