Several researches have shown that specialized areas of vice
and crime constitute a “normal” response to a situation where the cultural
emphasis upon pecuniary success has been absorbed, but where there is little
access to conventional and legitimate means for becoming successful.
The occupational opportunities of people in these areas are largely confined
to manual labor and the lesser white-collar jobs. Given the American
stigmatization of manual labor which has been found to hold rather uniformly
in all social classes, and the absence of realistic opportunities for advancement
beyond this level, the result is a marked tendency toward deviant behavior.
The status of unskilled labor and the standards of worth with the promises
of power and high income from organized vice, rackets, and crime (1968,