The reforms that are being proposed today are by no means new ones,
and have been popular with certain corporations (IBM, for instance) and
certain management theorists for a generation. They represent a style
of management rather than a genuine change in the position of the worker.
They are characterized by a studied pretense of worker “participation,”
a gracious liberality in allowing the worker to adjust a machine, replace
a light bulb, move from one fractional job to another, and to have the
illusion of making decisions by choosing among fixed and limited alternatives
designed by a management which deliberately leaves insignificant matters
open to choice (26-27).