"The new middle class of white-collar employees is certainly not the political pivot of any balancing society. It is in no way politically united. Its trade unions, such as they are, often serve merely to incorporate it as a hanger-on of the labour interest. For a considerable period the old middle class was an independent base of power; the new middle class cannot be. Once political freedom and economic security were anchored in small and independent properties; they were not anchored in the worlds of the white-collar job. Once scattered property holders were economically linked by more or less free markets; the jobs of the new middle class are now integrated by corporate authority. Economically the white-collar classes are in the same condition as wage workers; politically they are in a worse condition, for they are not as organized. They are no vanguard of historic change; they are at best a rearguard of the Welfare State" (The Causes of World War III, 1958, p. 36).