"By democracy I mean a system of power in which those who are vitally affected by such decisions as are made--and as could be made but are not--have an effective voice in these decisions and defaults. The political structure of a modern democratic state, I suggest, requires at least these six conditions:

I. It requires not only that such a public as is projected by democratic theorists exist, but that it be the very forum within which a politics of real issues is enacted.

II. It requires nationally responsible parties which debate openly and clearly the issues which the nation, and indeed the world, now so rigidly confront.

III. It requires a senior civil service firmly linked to the world of knowledge and sensibility and composed of skilled men who, in their careers and in their aspirations, are truly independent of any private--that is to say, corporation--interests.

IV. It requires an intelligentsia, inside as well as outside the universities, who carry on the big discourse of the Western world, and whose work is relevant to and influential among parties and movements and publics. It requires, in brief, truly independent minds which are directly relevant to powerful decisions.

V. It requires that there be media of genuine communication which are open to such men and with the aid of which they can translate the private troubles of individuals into public issues, and public issues and events into their meanings for the private life. This conditions, as well as III and IV, are necessary if leaders are to be held responsible to publics and if there is to be an end of the divorce of the power and the intellect, an end to the higher and irresponsible ignorance, an end to the isolation of the intellect from public life.

VI. And democracy certainly requires, as a fact of power, that there be free associations linking families and smaller communities and publics on the one hand with the state, the military establishment, the corporation on the other. Unless such associations exist, there are no vehicles for reasoned opinion, no instruments for the rational exertion of public will" (The Causes of World War III, 1958, pp. 121-123).