"The alienating conditions of
modern work now include the salaried employees as well as the wage-workers.
There are few, if any, features of wage-work (except heavy toil--which
is decreasingly a factor in wage-work) that do not also characterized at
least some white-collar work. For here, too, the human traits of the individual,
from his physique to his psychic disposition, become units in the functionally
rational calculation of managers. None of the features of work as craftsmanship
is prevalent in office and salesroom, and, in addition, some features of
white-collar work, such as the personality market, go well beyond the alienating
conditions of wage-work" (White Collar: The American
Middle Classes, 1951, p. 227).