A second polar type is found in groups where activities
originally conceived as instrumental are transmuted into self-contained
practices, lacking further objectives. The original purposes are
forgotten and close adherence to institutionally prescribed conduct becomes
a matter of ritual. Sheer conformity becomes a central value.
For a time, social stability is ensured—at the expense of flexibility.
Since the range of alternative behaviors permitted by the culture is severely
limited, there is little basis for adapting to new conditions. There
develops a tradition-bound, ‘sacred’ society marked by neophobia (1968,