A third integral element of the description of the problematical item preparatory to the actual functional analysis--a further requirement for preparing the specimen for analysis, so to speak--is to include the "meanings" (or cognitive and affective significance) of the activity or pattern for members of the group.  In fact, as will become evident, a fully circumstantial account of the meanings attached to the item goes far toward suggesting appropriate lines of functional analysis (1968, pp. 111-112).