With the presentation of these data we close the empirical testing of our hypothesis.  In every instance, the association of Protestantism with scientific and technologic interests and achievements is pronounced, even when extra-religious influences are as far as possible eliminated.  The association is largely understandable in terms of the norms embodied in both systems.  The positive estimation by Protestants of a hardly disguised utilitarianism, of intra-mundane interests, of a thorough-going empiricism, of the right and even the duty of libre examen, and of the explicit individual questioning of authority were congenial to some values found in modern science.  And perhaps above all is the significance of the active ascetic drive which necessitated the study of Nature that it might be controlled.  Hence, these two fields were well integrated and, in essentials, mutually supporting, not only in seventeenth-century England, but in other times and places (1968, p. 649).