Adherence to the rules, originally conceived as a means, becomes
transformed into an end-in-itself; there occurs the familiar process of
displacement of goals whereby "an instrumental value becomes a terminal
value." Discipline, readily interpreted as conformance with regulations,
whatever the situation, is seen not as a measure designed for specific
purposes but becomes an immediate value in the life-organization of the
bureaucrat. This emphasis, resulting from the displacement of the
original goals, develops into rigidities and an inability to adjust readily.
Formalism, even ritualism, ensues with an unchallenged insistence upon
punctilious adherence to formalized procedures (1968, p. 253).