Adherence to the rules, originally conceived as a means, becomes transformed into an end-in-itself; there occurs the familiar process of displacement of goals whereby "an instrumental value becomes a terminal value."  Discipline, readily interpreted as conformance with regulations, whatever the situation, is seen not as a measure designed for specific purposes but becomes an immediate value in the life-organization of the bureaucrat.  This emphasis, resulting from the displacement of the original goals, develops into rigidities and an inability to adjust readily.  Formalism, even ritualism, ensues with an unchallenged insistence upon punctilious adherence to formalized procedures (1968, p. 253).