As Weber indicates, bureaucracy involves a clear-cut division of integrated activities which are regarded as duties inherent in the office.  A system of differentiated controls and sanctions is stated in the regulations.  The assignment of roles occurs on the basis of technical qualifications which are ascertained through formalized, impersonal procedures (e.g., examinations).  Within the structure of hierarchically arranged authority, the activities of “trained and salaried experts” are governed by genera, abstract, and clearly defined rules which precludes the necessity for the issuance of specific instructions for each specific case.  The generality of the rules requires the constant use of categorizations, whereby individual problems are treated accordingly.  The pure type of bureaucratic official is appointed, either by a superior or through the exercise of impersonal competition; he is not elected (1968, p. 250).