Poverty as such and consequent limitation of opportunity are not enough to produce a conspicuously high rate of criminal behavior.  Even the notorious “poverty in the midst of plenty” will not necessarily lead to this result.  But when poverty and associated disadvantages in competing for the culture values approved for all members of the society are linked with a cultural emphasis on pecuniary success as a dominant goal, high rates of criminal behavior are the normal outcome (1968, p. 201).