Several researches have shown that specialized areas of vice and crime constitute a “normal” response to a situation where the cultural emphasis upon pecuniary success has been absorbed, but where there is little access to conventional and legitimate means for becoming successful.  The occupational opportunities of people in these areas are largely confined to manual labor and the lesser white-collar jobs.  Given the American stigmatization of manual labor which has been found to hold rather uniformly in all social classes, and the absence of realistic opportunities for advancement beyond this level, the result is a marked tendency toward deviant behavior.  The status of unskilled labor and the standards of worth with the promises of power and high income from organized vice, rackets, and crime (1968, p. 199).