A necessary consequence of the separation of conception and execution is that the labor process is now divided between separate sites and separate bodies of workers.  In one location, the physical processes of production are executed.  In another are concentrated the design, planning, calculation, and record-keeping.  The preconception of the process before it is set in motion, the visualization of each worker’s activities before they have actually begun, the definition of each function along with the manner of its performance and the time it will consume, the control and checking of the ongoing process once it is under way, and the assessment of results upon completion of each stage of the process--all of these aspects of production have been removed from the shop floor to the management office.  The physical processes of production are now carried out more or less blindly, not only by the workers who perform them, but often by lower ranks of supervisory employees as well.  The production units operate like a hand, watched, corrected, and controlled by a distant brain (86).