The cause of this soldiering he breaks into two parts: “This loafing or soldieringproceeds from two causes.  First, from the natural instinct and tendency of men to take it easy, which may be called natural soldiering.  Second, from more intricate second thought and reasoning caused by their relations with other men, which may be called systematic soldiering.” The firs of these he quickly puts aside, to concentrate on the second: “The natural laziness of men is serious, but by far the greatest evil from which both workmen and employers are suffering is the systematic soldiering which is almost universal undera all ordinaty schemes of management and which results from a careful study on the part of the workmen of what they think will promote their interests” (67-68).