The control of large bodies of workers long antedates the bourgeois epoch.
The Pyramids, the Great Wall of China, extensive networks of roads, aqueducts,
and irrigation canals, the large buildings, arenas, monuments, cathedrals,
etc., dating from antiquity and medieval times all testify to this.
We find an elementary division of labor in the workshops which produced
weapons for the Roman armies, and the armies of pre-capitalist times exhibit
primitive forms of later capitalist practices…These predecessors, however,
were undertaken under conditions of slave or other unfree forms of labor,
stagnant technology, and the absence of the driving capitalist need to
expand each unit of capital employed, and so differed markedly from capitalist