Corresponding to the managing functions of the capitalist in the past, there is now a complex of departments, each of which has taken over in greatly expanded form a single duty which he exercised with very little assistance in the past.  Corresponding to each of these duties there is not just a single manager, but an entire operating department which imitates in its organization and its functioning the factory out of which it grew.  The particular management function is exercised not just by a manager, nor even by a staff of managers, but by an organization of workers under the control of managers, assistant managers, supervisors, etc.  Thus the relations of purchase and sale of labor power, and hence of alienated labor, have become part of the management apparatus itself. Management has become administration, which is a labor process conducted for the purpose of control within the corporation, and conducted moreover as a labor process exactly analogous to the process of production, although it produces no product other than the operation and coordination of the corporation.  From this point on, to examine management means also to examine this labor process, which contains the same antagonistic relations as are contained in the process of production (185-186).