Marx has pointed out that unlike general, who win their wars by recruiting armies, captains of industry win their wars by discharging armies.  A necessary consequence of management and technology is a reduction in the demand for labor.  The constant raising of the productivity of labor through the organizational and technical means that have been described herein must, in itself, produce this tendency.  The application of modern methods of management and machined technology, however, become practical only with the rapid increase in the scale of production.  Thus the rapid increase in the productivity of labor tends to be counterbalanced by the growth in production.  Chiefly as a consequence of this, employment in those industries concerned with production of goods has not declined in absolute terms (163).

If the displacement of labor cannot be seen in the figures for the absolute size of the working population occupied in the making of goods, it can be seen in the measures of its relative size (164).