The animating principle of all such work investigations is the view of human beings in machine terms.  Since management is not interested in the person of the worker, but in the worker as he or she is used in office, factory, warehouse, store, or transport process, this view is form the management point of view not only eminently rational but the basis of all calculation.  The human being is here regarded as a mechanism articulated by hinges, ball-and-socket joints etc….In this we see not merely the terms of a machine analogy used for experimental purposes, nor merely a teaching metaphor or didactic device, but in the context of the capitalist mode of production the operating theory by which people of one class set into motion people of another class.  It is the reductive formula that expresses both how capital employs labor and what it makes of humanity (124).