The old epoch of industry gave way to the new during the last decades
of the nineteenth century primarily as a result of advances in four fields:
electricity, steel, coal-petroleum, and the internal combustion engine.
Scientific research along theoretical lines played enough of a role in
these areas to demonstrate to the capitalist class, and especially to the
giant corporate entities then coming into being as a result of the concentration
and centralization of capital, its importance as a means of furthering
the accumulation of capital. This was particularly true in the electrical
industries, which were entirely the product of nineteenth-century science,
and in the chemistry of the synthetic products of coal and oil (109-110).